KAR style guide

Translation Style Guide for Korean Anthropology Review

I. Romanization
  • 1. Romanization of Korean words: Use the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST) Romanization Standard.
  • 2. Korean names in Korean literature:
    • 1) Follow the MCST recommendation; put the surname first and make the given name one word. Write out BOTH the surname and given name without a comma (Only in a reference list, a comma follows the surname).

      (in the body)
      According to Yi Gwanggyu (1975), the patrilineal stem family was the norm among Koreans in the mid-twentieth century.

      (in citation)
      The patrilineal stem family was the norm among Koreans in the mid-twentieth century (Yi Gwanggyu 1975).

    • 2) A given name can be hyphenated, for the purpose of clarity; the second part is put in a lower case. EX. Kim Seong-rye (2010) examined that ….
    • 3) Exceptions to MCST: surnames 김 Kim, 강 Kang, 신 Shin, 우 Wu, 이 Yi (NOT: Gim, Gang, Sin, U, I)
    • 4) Note: surname 임 Im (NOT: Yim)
  • 3. Korean names in English literature:
    • 1) If a cited work is written in English (or any other roman language) by a Korean-name author, use the romanization as appeared in the cited publication, including hyphenation and the use of an upper/lower case for the second part of the given name. In this case, the given name precedes the surname. Also, the surname can appear without the given name.

      In short, Korean names as authors of roman-based language publications are presented in the same manner as with other roman-based names.

      EX. (in the body)
      According to Kwang-Kyu Lee (1997), …
      Lee (1997) argued that …

    • 2) If one and the same author published works both in Korean and English but separately, romanize the author name according to the language of each publication. For works in Korean, follow the MCST style. For works in English, follow the original publication.

      EX. (in the body)
      For works in Korean: Yi Gwanggyu (1975); (Yi Gwanggyu 1975)
      For works in English: Kwang-Kyu Lee (1997); Lee (1997); (Lee 1997)

      (However, in the references section, use a rectangular parenthesis for the preferred romanization to indicate that it is one and the same author.)

      Yi, Gwanggyu [Lee, Kwang-Kyu] 이광규

  • 4. Korean names of multi-author-publications in citations:
    • 1) Use “and” without a comma for two authors; with a comma for three or more authors.

      (홍길동·성춘향 2014) → (Hong Gildong and Seong Chunhyang 2014)

      (홍길동·성춘향·장길산 2014) → (Hong Gildong, Seong Chunhyang, and Jang Gilsan 2014)

    • 2) Use “et al.” for 외 (no italics for “et al.”).

      (홍길동 외 2014) → (Hong Gildong et al. 2014)

    • 3) Note: “et al.” may be used in citations, but in the reference list, specify each of the authors if possible, even when the original Korean reference lists only the first author with “외.”
II. References
  • 1. List all the references in the alphabetical order; each work has its own entry, even if there are multiple works by the same author.
  • 2. Author names: romanize author names, followed by the name in the original language, if the respective work was published in a language other than English or roman alphabet-based language. Put the author’s preferred romanization in a rectangular parenthesis if known.

    • EX.
      Hong, Gildong 홍길동. 2018.
      Lee, Kwang-Kyu. 1997.
      Yi, Gwanggyu [Lee, Kwang-Kyu] 이광규. 1975.

    If the author or editor is a research center or group in Korean, use the upper case only for the first letter of the beginning word. In this case, the name of an institute or research center is translated in a bracket. If the author or editor is a public institution with its own widely used English name, use the English name with each word capitalized.

    • EX.
      Yi, Okgyeong 이옥경. 1984. 70년대 대중문화의 성격 [The character of pop culture in the 1970s]. In Hanguk gidokgyo sahoemunje yeonguso 한국기독교사회문제연구소 [Korean Christian research institute for social issues], ed. 『한국사회변동연구』 [Studies of social change in Korea]. Seoul: Minjungsa 민중사.

      Cultural Heritage Administration 문화재관리국. 1970. 『우리나라의 문화재』 [Korea’s cultural properties]. Seoul: Cultural Heritage Administration 문화재관리국.

    For the author names of a multi-authored publication in Korean, each romanization is followed by the name in Korean, “and” preceding the last romanization.

    In the case of multi-authored publications, only the first author’s name is presented with the surname followed by a comma and the given name. For the rest names, a given name is followed by a surname for English publication; a surname precedes a given name for Korean publications without a comma.

    • EX.
      Kim, Seong-rye [Kim, Seong-nae] 김성례, Yu Cheolin 유철인, Kim Eunsil 김은실, Kim Changmin 김창민, Ko Changhun 고창훈, and Kim Seokjun 김석준. 2001. 제주 4·3의 경험과 마을공동체의 변화 [The experience of Jeju 4.3 and transformations in village communities]. 『한국문화인류학』 [Korean cultural anthropology] 34(1): 89–137.

      Yang, Lawrence Hsin, Arthur Kleinman, Bruce G. Link, Jo C. Phelan, Sing Lee, and Byron Good. 2007. Culture and Stigma: Adding Moral Experience to Stigma Theory.
      Social Science & Medicine 64(7): 1524-1535.

    If “외” is used after specifying three or more authors in the original reference and the remaining authors cannot be identified, use “et al.”

    • EX.
      Kim, Gwiok 김귀옥. 2013. 여성에게 전쟁은 무엇인가?: 한국전쟁기 남성부재와 시집살이 여성 [What is war to women?: Absence of men and patrilocal life of women in the Korean War period]. In Yi Jaegyeong 이재경, Yun Taekrim 윤택림, Jo Yeongju 조영주 et al. 외, eds. 『여성(들)이 기억하는 전쟁과 분단』[Women remembering war and division]. Hongcheon: Arche 아르케.
  • 3. Titles of articles and books; Names of journals: List in the original language first and translate them in a rectangular parenthesis. For the translation, capitalize ONLY the first letter of the beginning word.

    Articles, books, and journals may have their own translations or English titles, which are NOT considered in our translation. By using lower cases for the translation, except in the beginning, we intend to imply that it is our own translation. Note that for roman alphabet titles and names, each of the important words are capitalized.

    • EX.
      Yi, Gwanggyu [Lee, Kwang-Kyu] 이광규. 1975. 『한국가족의 구조분석』[A structural analysis of Korean family]. Seoul: Iljisa 일지사.
  • 4. For roman alphabet titles of books, journals, newspapers, magazines, and films: Italicize. For Korean titles, use the marks『』, followed by their translation in a bracket (this also applies to book titles appearing in the body). Do not use quotations for the titles of articles, poems, and photographs or other images in the reference list.

    • EX.
      Bhabah, Homi K. 1990. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge.

      Gupta, Akhil and James Ferguson. 1992. Beyond “Culture”: Space, Identity, and the Politics of Difference. Cultural Anthropology (7)1: 6-23.

      Mun, Okpyo [Moon, Okpyo] 문옥표. 1991. 후기산업사회에서의 농촌의 위상:

      1980년대 일본 농촌부흥운동의 의미 [The status of the rural village in postindustrial society: The meaning of the Japanese rural village revival movement in the 1980s]. 『농촌사회』 [Rural village society] 1: 211-251.

      Son, Jintae 손진태. 1948. 『朝鲜民族文化의 研究』 [A study of Korean national culture]. Seoul: Eulyu munhwasa 을유문화사.

    In the case of a master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation, treat the title in the same manner as a research article; list whether it is a master’s thesis or Ph. D. dissertation, followed by the name of the school.

    • EX.
      Shin, Haeeun 신해은. 2016. 무대 위의 북한 [North Korea on stage]. Master’s thesis, Seoul National University.

      Ji, Eunsuk 지은숙. 2016. 비혼을 통해 본 현대 일본의 가족 관계와 젠더 질서 [Family relationship and gender order in contemporary Japan through the case of hikon]. Ph.D. dissertation, Seoul National University.

  • 5. If names of newspapers, magazines, organizations are listed as author in the references section, do not italicize in the case of names of newspapers or magazines; translate in the case of names of organizations or as needed. If the organization has its own widely used English name, use the English name with each word capitalized.

    • EX.
      (if the author of a newspaper article is known)
      Hong, Gildong 홍길동. 2018. 고령화 문제 점점 심각 [The issue of population aging becoming ever more serious]. Hanguk Sinmun, March 5, 2018.
      Seong, Chunhyang 성춘향. 2016. 아재 도의회[Ajae provincial assembly]. Gangwondominilbo [Gangwon provincial news], June 21, 2016. http://www.kado.net/news/articleView.html?idxno=788147 (Accessed: September 3, 2016).

      (if the author is unknown and the name of a newspaper is given as author)
      Hanguk Sinmun 한국신문. 2018. 고령화 문제 점점 심각 [The issue of population aging becoming ever more serious]. Hanguk Sinmun, March 5, 2018.
      Gangwondominilbo [Gangwon provincial news] 강원도민일보. 2016. 아재 도의회[Ajae provincial assembly]. Gangwondominilbo, June 21, 2016.
      The Kyunghyang Shinmun 경향신문. 1998. 여성흡연권 쟁취를 위한 거리행진 대회 [Street march and rally for women’s smoking rights]. The Kyunghyang Shinmun, March 17, 1998.

      (Note: in the above examples, Hanguk Sinmun is a fictitious name used to indicate that when an institution does not have a widely used romanization of its own, its romanization follows the MCST rules; cf. The Kyunghyang Shinmun)

    Names of newspapers and magazines are italicized, just as other periodicals and book titles; names of organizations, institutions or production companies are not, just as publishers.

  • 6. Names of publishers: romanize first and then list the name in the original language. If the Romanization involves more than one word, capitalize ONLY the first letter of the beginning word.

    • EX. 서울: 일지사 → Seoul: Ilgisa 일지사.
    • EX. 서울: 지식산업사 → Seoul: Jisik saneopsa 지식산업사.
  • 7. Translated works: if a Korean translation of a work originally published in a non-Korean language was cited, treat the work as in Korean. Put the translator’s name after the title, using “Trans. by.” For the translator’s name, do not put a comma after the family name. If the translator’s name is in English or other Roman-based alphabet, put the given name first.

    For the title: do NOT put the original non-Korean title in the rectangular parenthesis; as in Korean language titles (see EX in 3), put a translation of the Korean title, not of the original title. If the original title was literally translated into Korean, the original title can be put in the rectangular parenthesis.

    For the date: use the translation publication date.

    • EX.
      Cumings, Bruce. 2001. 『브루스 커밍스의 한국현대사』 [Bruce Cumings’ modern Korean history]. Trans. by Kim Dongno 김동노, Yi Gyoseon 이교선, Yi Jinjun 이진준, and Han Giuk 한기욱. Paju: Changbi 창비.
    • Wada, Haruki 와다 하루키. 2002. 『북조선: 유격대국가에서 정규군국가로』 [North Korea: from guerilla state to normal state]. Trans. by Seo Dongman 서동만 and Nam Kijeong 남기정. Paju: Dolbegae 돌베개.
  • 8. Capitalize “In” when used to indicate that a source article is included in an edited volume: In Editor’s Name, ed. Title of the Edited Volume. Pp. number-number. Locality: Publisher. (Omit pages numbers, if not provided.)
    • EX.

      Potter, J. M. 1970. Land and Lineage in Traditional China. In M. Freedman, ed. Family and Kinship in Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

      Kim, Taekgyu [Kim, Taek-Gyu] 김택규. 1985. 일본민속학의 형성과 그 성격 [The development and characteristics of Japanese folklore studies]. In Seong Byeonghui 성병희 and Im Jaehae 임재해, eds. 『한국민속학의 과제와 방법』 [The tasks and methods of Korean folklore studies]. Seoul: Jeongeumsa 정음사.

      Jeong, Idam 정이담. 1985. 문화운동시론 [Essays on cultural activism]. In Jeong Idam et al. 정이담 외, eds. 『문화운동론』 [Cultural activism theory]. Seoul: Gongdongche 공동체.

      (when the pages are available)
      Schiller, Glick. 1999. Transmigrants and Nation-State: Something Old and Something New in the US Immigrant Experience. In Charles Hirschman, Philip Kasinitz, and Joshua DeWind, eds. The Handbook of International Migrant. Pp. 94- 118. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

  • 9. Put a comma after editor’s name and ed. or eds.
    • EX.
      Im, Gwontaek [Im, Kwon-taek] 임권택, ed. 1993. 『서편제 영화 이야기』 [Stories about the film Seopyeonje]. Seoul: Haneul chulpansa 하늘출판사.
  • 10. Replace single quotes in the original Korean title with double quotes, italics, or upper cases, only if marking of the given part is necessary. Use double quotes to indicate that it is a citation that has a source; italics for Korean words that need to remain untranslated and be romanized; upper cases to indicate that it is a proper noun. In other cases, single quotes may be simply removed in the translation. The KAR Style discourages use of single quotes, except for quotes within double quotes. In the case of double quotes in the original Korean, do likewise.
    • EX.
      (retain the double quotes in the translation)
      Go, Gyeongnan 고경난. 2016. 색의 성격화: 한국 화장품 기업의 “핑크” 브랜딩에서 색채어 유희와 기능 [Giving personality to color: Play and function of color words in the “pink” branding of Korean cosmetic companies]. 『비교문화연구』 [Cross-cultural studies] 22(2): 13–43.

      (remove the double quotes)
      Kang, Nayeong 강나영. 2015. 어린이 “동음이의어 말놀이”(pun)의 구조 및 내용적 특성에 대한사회언어학적 연구 [A sociolinguistic study of the structures and content characteristics of children’s puns]. 『사회언어학』 [Sociolinguistics] 23(1): 1-30.

      (replace single quotes with upper cases to indicate a proper noun status)
      Yang, Hyeona [Yang, Hyunah] 양현아. 2001. 증언과 역사쓰기: 한국의 ‘군위안부’ 주체성 재현 [Testimony and writing history: reconstruction of Japanese Military Comfort Women’s identity in Korea]. 『사회와 역사』 [ Society and history] 60: 60–96.

      (replace single quotes with italics)
      Yeonhap News 연합뉴스. 2016. 왠지 귀여운 ‘아재’, 어딘가 불쾌한 ‘개저씨’: 복고 열풍 속 주목받는 중년의 두 얼굴 [Kind of cute ajae; somehow unpleasant gaejeossi: Two faces of middle age in the spotlight amid retro craze]. Yeonhap News, May 23, 2016.

III. Citations & Quotations
  • 1. Use brief in-text citations (author name year: page no). Full references go in a reference section at the end of the article. In the case of media articles, if no author is given, use (name of the media, month day, year); if an author is given, treat it like journal articles (author name year). Note that the name of a media is treated as a title and italicized when it appears in the body; when it appears in a parenthesis for citation, it is treated as an author name and not italicized.

    • EX.

      (Kim Hojin 2015: 31)

      If a media article has no author:
      (Yeonhap News, July 20, 2015)

      If the author name of a media article is given:
      (Hong Gildong, July 20, 2015)

  • 2. When quoted within the text, the citation for the quoted passage precedes final punctuation. In block quotes, final punctuation occurs at end of quote and before citation in parentheses.
    • EX.
      [Within the text] “a testimony to the people’s perseverance” (Kim Hojin 2015: 31).

      [In block] a testimony to the people’s perseverance. (Kim Hojin 2015: 31)

  • 3. Use double quotes for quoted text in the main body of the article (that is, not block quotes), for quoted material within a block quote, and for words used ironically, for emphasis, or for terms used as terms in English. Single quotes are used only for quoted material within a larger quoted excerpt.
    • EX.
      I define “agency” as “the ability to act otherwise.”

      (if the term is Korean, use italics instead of double quotes)
      I examine how ajae is stereotyped . . .

  • 4. Use a block quote, if exceeding 50 words.
  • 5. Use double quotes for the titles of articles, poems, and photographs or other images, if they appear in the body.
  • 6. Quotation marks: use smart quotes, not straight quotes.
IV. Footnotes
  • 1. Use footnotes, NOT endnotes.
  • 2. Translate all the footnotes or endnotes in the original article.
  • 3. Use arabic (not roman) numerals for note callouts.
    • EX: Marcel Mauss, in his famous work, The Gift, recognizes the multiple functions of giving.24
  • 4. Translator may footnote in regards to translating particular expressions or concepts. In this case, mark it in a parenthesis in the beginning of a footnote.
    • EX. (Translator’s note) START A NOTE.
  • 5. Punctuation precedes footnote call out.
V. Indentation
  • 1. Indent all paragraphs, except the paragraph immediately following a heading.
  • 2. Do NOT indent a block quote.
VI. Headings
  • 1. Primary headings: Align left margin and capitalize first letter of important words; Two line spacing before each primary heading; Text begins after one line spacing. Primary headings are numbered as 1. XXX, 2. XXX, ….
    • EX.
      [TEXT ENDS]
      1. Korean Popular Culture
  • 2. Secondary Headings: Align left margin and capitalize first letter of important words; Italicize; One line spacing before each secondary heading; Text begins after one line spacing. Secondary headings are numbered as 1) XXX, 2) XXX, …. And numbers are also italicized.
    • EX.
      [TEXT ENDS]
      1) Korean TV Dramas
  • 3. Tertiary Headings: Align left margin and capitalize first letter of important words; One line spacing before each tertiary heading; Text begins immediate next line (without line spacing). Tertiary headings are not numbered.
    • EX.
      [TEXT ENDS]
      Salient Themes in TV Dramas
VII. General Conventions
  • 1. Italicize Korean or other non-English words in the text and notes.

    • EX: Truthfulness (pure heart, jeong) is valued by North Korean migrants.

      EX: Jeong (pure heart or truthfulness) is valued by North Korean refugees.

      EX: With respect to public and private domains, the public (gong) refers to the common good, fairness, or the heavenly way, on the one hand, and office, political authority, or the state, on the other, while the private (sa) pertains to the individual and personal.

    However, do not italicize longer non-English excerpts within quotations or block quotes.

    • EX: (taken from a block quote)
      Many in younger generations might think “bumoneun bumogo, naneun nago” [I like to go on with my life separately from my parents], but they actually rely on the parental support long after their marriage!
  • 2. All figures and tables should have captions associated with them, whenever they are available in the original text, and also be referred to by number or the means used in the original text.
    • EX: Figure 1: A dramatized version of the public reactions to the referendum.

      Table 1: Comparison of migrants by gender, age, schooling, and national origins.

      As is evidenced from the public reactions (see Figure 1), many people were outraged.

      Table 1 presents a comparison showing that among those who migrated from Southeast Asia, educated women predominated.

  • 3. Write out numerals one to five and present all other numbers in arabic numerals. Write out number designations for centuries as in nineteenth century.
  • 4. Be sure to use a space to separate an opening parenthesis from preceding text. Also use a space to separate article and book titles from their translations in square brackets.
  • 5. Use a period to close any note without final punctuation.
  • 6. Use serial commas (that is, put a comma immediately before the coordinating conjunction in a series of three of more terms.)
    • EX. Seoul, Tokyo, and Beijing were his final destinations.

      EX. The migrants were diverse in terms of age, schooling, and national origins.

  • 7. Use font size 12 for text and font size 10 for notes. All roman font in Times New Roman style.
  • 8. Refer to contributions in the journal as “articles,” not “papers.”
  • 9. Write out “percent” except in tables where % may be appropriate.
  • 10. Do not italicize “et al.” and other commonly used Latin words.
  • 11. Capitalize “Western” when referring to nations/societies of Western Europe, North America, and the British Commonwealth. Also “West” in this same sense and “non-Western.” “Oriental” would be the typical counterpart but “Eastern” might also be used.
  • 12. When explaining the meaning of a word or expression, use a parenthesis ( ); when showing a missing word or part within a quote, use a bracket [ ].
  • 13. For other general matters, use the Chicago Style.